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3rd International conference on Water Microbiology
Water Sustainability & Reuse Technologies, will be organized around the theme “Rejuvenating Innovation in WATER”

WATER 2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in WATER 2018

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Marine microbiology is the study of microorganisms and non-organismic microbes that exist in saltwater environments, including the open ocean, coastal waters, estuaries, on marine surfaces and in sediments. Aquatic microbiology is the science that deals with microscopic living organisms in fresh or salt water systems

The development and implementation of water treatment technologies have been mostly driven by three primary factors: the discovery of new rarer contaminants, the promulgation of new water quality standards, and cost. In the past years, chemical clarification, granular media filtration, and chlorination were virtually the only treatment processes used in municipal water treatment. However, recently dramatic change in the water industry's approach to water treatment in which water utilities have started to seriously consider alternative treatment technologies to the traditional filtration/chlorination treatment approach. 

water analysis is carried out on water used in industrial processes, on waste-water stream, on rivers and stream, on rainfall and on the sea. In all cases, the results of the analysis provide information that can be used to make decisions or to provide re-assurance that conditions are as expected.

Water treatment is any process that improves the quality of water to make it more acceptable for a specific end-use. The end user may be drinking, industrial water supply, irrigation, river flow maintenance, water recreation or many other uses, including being safely returned to the environment. Water treatment removes contaminants and undesirable components or reduces their concentration so that the water becomes fit for its desired end-use.

Water safety is the procedures, precautions, and policies associated with safety in, on and around bodies of water, where there is a risk of injury or drowning. It has applications in several occupations, sports, and recreational activities.

It is microbial cells attached to surfaces in moist environments that form biofilms.  Biofouling implies their accumulation on both living and non-living surfaces. Biofilm-associated cells are known to cost nations billions of US Dollars every year in equipment and machine maintenance, product contamination, medical device-related infections, and energy loss;  with attendant adverse effects on drinking water quality, causing disinfectant decay,  taste, odour and spread of pathogenic diseases. Biofilms function as biofilters, releasing metabolites such asrganic and inorganic acids,  ammonia, hydrogen sulphide and displaying bioaccumulation properties.  On this note, this paper reviews the challenges and various methods adopted to prevent  and  inhibit  the  formation  of  biofilms,  managing  biofilms, advances  in  biofilm  research  for quality drinking water,  public  health implications of biofilms and economic cost of biofilms.

Bacteria, protozoa, and viruses are the cause of many emerging and new waterborne infectious diseases and these diseases will be discussed in more detail in the following sections. Infectious diseases are caused by microbial pathogens that have parasitized and plagued their cellular host species since time immemorial.

Waterborne diseases are classified as those transmitted through the ingestion of contaminated water and water acts as the passive carrier of the infectious agent. Most commonly, waterborne infections are caused by human and animal fecal pollution of water and this goes hand in hand with scarcities of water supply and poor water sanitation.
Water testing is a broad description for various procedures used to analyze water quality. Millions of water quality tests are carried out daily to fulfill regulatory requirements and to maintain safety.
Wastewater (or wastewater) is any water that has been affected by human use. Wastewater is "used water from any combination of domestic, industrial, commercial or agricultural activities, surface runoff or stormwater, and any sewer inflow or sewer infiltration". Therefore, wastewater is a byproduct of domestic, industrial, commercial or agricultural activities. The characteristics of wastewater vary depending on the source. Types of wastewater include domestic wastewater from households, municipal wastewater from communities (also called sewage) or industrial wastewater from industrial activities. Wastewater can contain physical, chemical and biological pollutants.

 

A wastewater treatment plant is a microbiological zoo that houses bacteria, protozoa, metazoa, and other micro life. The microorganisms do the actual breakdown and removal of nutrients and organic material in the wastewater.

A perspective on the ecology of aquatic microbes. The advances and limitations of methodology-Distribution and activity of microorganisms in lakes: effects of physical processes-- Microbial biogeochemical activities in lakes: stratification and eutrophication-- The pelagic microbial food web of oligotrophic lakes-- Attached microbial communities in rivers-- Biogeochemistry of dissolved organic carbon entering streams-- Ground-water microbiology: subsurface ecosystem processes-- Wetland and swamp microbiology-- Microbial processes in salt marsh sediments-- Bacterial production in estuaries-- Growth limitation and starvation of bacteria-- Particulate detritus and bacteria in marine environments-- Interaction of nitrogen and carbon cycles in the marine environment-- Microbial life in extreme environments-- The air/water interface as an "extreme" environment-- Microbial ecology of sewage treatment-- The microbial ecology of water distribution and outfall systems-- Genetic stability of genetically engineered microorganisms in the aquatic environment.

Water reuse during food production and processing occurs and will likely increase in the future. For food production, it is important to understand how water demand, sources of pollution, water reuse and contamination of food through water affect food safety.

  • Track 12-1Primary Production - Farming & Agriculture
  • Track 12-2Cleaning and Sanitation
  • Track 12-3Water source, treatment and quality
  • Track 12-4Sustainability Goals
  • Track 12-5Water Activity (aw) In Foods
  • Track 12-6Effects of Reduced aw on Food Safety
  • Track 12-7Analysis of Water Activity
  • Track 12-8Water Use & Waste Minimization

Technologies relied on by microbial forensic scientists need to be properly validated so that the methods used are understood and so that interpretation of results is carried out within the limitations of the assays. The three types of validation are preliminary, developmental, and internal. It uses advanced molecular techniques like microarray analysis and DNA fingerprinting etc. to associate the source of the causative agent with a specific individual or group by measuring variations between related strains. Nucleic amplification and molecular-epidemiological techniques are essential tools in clinical microbiology for identifying pathogens and in outbreak investigations.

·         Culture and Cytopathic Effect

·         Electron Microscopy (EM)

·         Serological Assays

·         Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

·         Neutralization and Hemagglutination Inhibition Assays

·         Immunostaining

·         Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

·         Real-Time PCR

·         Multiplex PCR

·         Microarray and Virus Chips

·         Next-Generation Sequencing

·         Subtractive Cloning

  • Track 13-1Microbial Indicators of fecal pollution
  • Track 13-2Environmental monitoring and management
  • Track 13-3Molecular diversity of microbial populations
  • Track 13-4Dynamics of Microbes - Geochips
  • Track 13-5Microbial bioreporter sensing technologies for chemical and biological detection
  • Track 13-6
  • Track 13-7

The emerging pathogenic bacteria of concern outlined here have the potential to be spread through drinking water, but they do not correlate with the presence of E. coli or with other commonly used drinking water quality indicators, such as coliform bacteria.

  • Track 14-1

A reservoir usually means an enlarged natural or artificial lake, storage pond or impoundment created using a dam or lock to store water. Reservoirs can be created by controlling a stream that drains an existing body of water. They can also be constructed in river valleys using a dam.

  • Track 15-1Omics technologies for in Silico Modelling to Understand Stress-Triggered Physiology of E. coli
  • Track 15-2Diarrhoeagenic E. coli
  • Track 15-3Escherichia coli Genome Plasticity and Evolution
  • Track 15-4Bacteriophage-based Strategies to Control Pathogenic E. coli
  • Track 15-5Understanding E. coli - Whole-genome Sequencing
Currently, however, beneficial microorganisms such as plant growth promoters and phytopathogen controllers are required by various agricultural crops, and many species are being used as biofactories of important pharmacological molecules. The use of biofactories does not end there: microorganisms have been explored for the synthesis of diverse chemicals, fuel molecules, and industrial polymers, and strains environmentally important due to their biodecomposing or biosorption capacity have gained interest in research laboratories and in industrial activities. We call this new microbiology Technological Microbiology, and we believe that complex techniques, such as heterologous expression and metabolic engineering, can be increasingly incorporated into this applied science, allowing the generation of new and improved products and services.
  • Track 16-1Articifial Intelligence in Robot Microscopes for detecting microbes in their natural environment
  • Track 16-2Observing Microbes in their own environment with AI powered Robot Microscopes
  • Track 16-3Planktons being the major source of water food-chain
  • Track 16-4Planktons loss will be reduced with AI & IT
  • Track 16-5Water - IT playing crucial role

Microbial metabolic activity lies at the heart of the myriad of interactions between the environment and microorganisms that shape the dynamics of ecosystems. Earth is a closed system with a finite amount of matter that cycles between the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere, and microbial metabolism drives biogeochemical cycling between these spheres. This Focus on microbial biogeochemistry explores microbial metabolism in the context of wider ecosystems. It comprises Reviews that discuss the microbial nitrogen cycling network, the role that bacterial microcompartments have in atmospheric carbon fixation, the symbiotic exchange of nitrogen and carbon compounds between rhizobia and legumes and the function of hopanoid lipids, which are markers of ancient microbial life in sediments and as membrane components, mediate interactions between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and plants. It also features Research Highlights that showcase the latest research into the relationship between microbial metabolism and the environment.

  • Track 17-1Environmental Biogeochemistry
  • Track 17-2Aquatic Biogeochemistry
  • Track 17-3Climate change & Aquatic chemistry
  • Track 17-4Wetland restoration and ecosystem development
  • Track 17-5Microbial metabolism and element cycles
  • Track 17-6Biodegradation of pollutants

Researchers are using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to understand the life cycle of nitrogen from its release into the atmosphere to its deposition on land and water. Using this model, researchers can develop deposition scenarios and compile information on nitrogen movement that can be used to manage nitrogen use and impacts.

  • Improve ways to measure the transfer of nitrogen and other pollutants from the atmosphere to land and water surfaces.
  • Use computer modeling to study deposition sources, atmospheric concentrations and their distribution patterns to urban areas, determine model efficiency, and appraise low-cost deposition techniques.
  • Measure gaseous and particulate nitrogen mixtures at five existing air quality monitoring network sites to describe the total amount of atmospheric nitrogen.
  • Study the relationships between airborne concentrations and total deposition of nitrogen and sulfur.

  • Track 18-1Nitrogen Mapping
  • Track 18-2Nutrient Management Case Studies
  • Track 18-3Nutrient Recovery
  • Track 18-4Sustainable Watersheds & Nutrient Pollution

Wastewater treatment is a process used to convert wastewater into an effluent that can be returned to the water cycle with minimum impact on the environment, or directly reused. The latter is called water reclamation because treated wastewater can then be used for other purposes. The treatment process takes place in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), often referred to as a Water Resource Recovery Facility (WRRF) or a sewage treatment plant. Pollutants in municipal wastewater (households and small industries) are removed or broken down.

  • Track 19-1Water Resource Management - Government Laws
  • Track 19-2Rain Water Harvesting & Use
  • Track 19-3Aerobic & Anaerobic Treatment
  • Track 19-4Environmental Management Systems
  • Track 19-5Operation & Monitoring of Small Wastewater Treatment Plants
  • Track 19-6Decentralized Domestic & Industrial Wastewater - Collection & Treatment Systems
  • Track 19-7Risk Assessment
  • Track 19-8Wastewater Reclamation & Reuse
  • Track 19-9Resources Oriented Sanitation
  • Track 19-10Effective & Efficient Wastewater Value Management

Desalination is a process that takes away mineral components from saline water. More generally, desalination refers to the removal of salts and minerals from a target substance, as in soil desalination, which is an issue for agriculture. Saltwater is desalinated to produce water suitable for human consumption or irrigation. One by-product of desalination is salt. Desalination is used on many seagoing ships and submarines. Most of the modern interest in desalination is focused on the cost-effective provision of fresh water for human use. Along with recycled wastewater, it is one of the few rainfall-independent water sources.

  • Track 20-1Forward Osmosis Technology
  • Track 20-2Zwitterionic polymer hydrogel
  • Track 20-3Solar desalination
  • Track 20-4Direct potable reuse
  • Track 20-5Renewable Desalination Units

Water treatment is any process that improves the quality of water to make it more acceptable for a specific end-use. The end user may be drinking, industrial water supply, irrigation, river flow maintenance, water recreation or many other uses, including being safely returned to the environment.

Water management is the management of water resources under set policies and regulations. Water, once an abundant natural resource, is becoming a more valuable commodity due to droughts and overuse. Here are links to articles that address water management subjects such as the optimization of water usage.

  • Track 21-1Technology development and implement process
  • Track 21-2Biological Wastewater Treatment Solutions
  • Track 21-3Advancements in Technology
  • Track 21-4Advanced Oxidation Technology
  • Track 21-5Biological Filtration
  • Track 21-6Ion Exchange Technology
  • Track 21-7Ultraviolet Irradiation Technology
  • Track 21-8Two-Stage Membrane Filtration
  • Track 21-9Membrane Filtration Technology
  • Track 21-10Energy Saving
  • Track 21-11Technology Evaluation
  • Track 21-12Reverse Osmosis